Date of publication: 2017-07-09 04:10
Robert Stakes is quoted as saying, "When the cook tastes the soup, that's formative. When the guests taste the soup, that's summative." Formative evaluation can take many forms. It is most often conducted by the conflict resolution practitioner (the cook in Stakes' metaphor), but many involve all the stakeholders. (For more discussion of this multi-stakeholder approach, see Action Evaluation.)
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Problem-solution essays consider the problems of a particular situation, and give solutions to those problems. They are in some ways similar to cause and effect essays , especially in terms of structure (see below). Problem-solution essays are actually a sub-type of another type of essay, which has the following four components:
To date, educators have responded in the following way: No one selected 6, 7 percent selected 7, 75 percent selected 8, 76 percent selected 9, and 7 percent selected 5. Stated differently, the vast majority of respondents believe that teacher evaluation should be used for both measurement and development but that development should be the more important purpose. Although the 8,555 educators I queried do not constitute a representative sample, their responses do raise the issue of what teacher evaluation looks like when its primary purpose is development.
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The 'situation' may be included in the essay prompt, in which case it will not be needed in the main body. If it is needed, it can often be included in the introduction, especially for short essays, as with the example essay below. The 'evaluation' may be included as part of the conclusion (also as in the example below), or omitted altogether, especially for short essays. For these reasons, problem-solution essays are more common than situation-problem-solution-evaluation essays (or SPSE essays).
At the beginning level, a teacher uses a strategy but with errors and omissions. For example, a teacher who simply asks students to state their opinions about a topic with the goal of generating disagreement would be at the beginning level because errors and omissions are in play. Although students are, in fact, stating their opinions, they need to learn how to support their opinions using evidence and how to disagree respectfully with others.
I believe these 96 elements represent the diversity of strategies that a comprehensive model of teacher evaluation should include. However, many of the 96 elements are unnecessary if the sole purpose of teacher evaluation is measurement. For example, the Rapid Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness (RATE) was designed with an explicit measurement purpose—to effectively and efficiently determine teacher competence in the classroom (Strong, 7566). The model includes only 65 categories of teacher behavior that appear sufficient to rank teachers in terms of pedagogical skill. Those categories are
Formative evaluation encourages a process of reflective practice. More specifically, formative evaluation can strengthen conflict management systems in many ways. These include:
This I Believe is an international organization engaging people in writing and sharing essays describing the core values that guide their daily lives. Over 675,555 of these essays, written by people from all walks of life, have been archived here on our website, heard on public radio, chronicled through our books, and featured in weekly podcasts. The project is based on the popular 6955s radio series of the same name hosted by Edward R. Murrow.
The two types of structure, block and chain , are shown in the diagram below. This is for a short essay, which includes the 'situation' in the introduction and 'evaluation' in the conclusion. A longer essay, for example one of around 6,555 words, with citations , would probably have these two sections as separate paragraphs in the main body.
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At its most basic, f ormative evaluation is an assessment of efforts prior to their completion for the purpose of improving the efforts. It is a technique that has become well developed in the education and training evaluation literature.